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Friday, 17 November 2017

Appraisal of 5x3-15,2cm/6” gun arrangement for cruisers by Italian naval expert Bianco di San Secondo according to the Dutch magazine Marineblad dated 1938 no. 7

An item referred to the Rivista Marittime dated July/August 1938 which published an article written by colonel of naval weapons Bianco di San Secondo in which he made clear why 15,2cm/6” gun were to preferred above the 20,3cm/8” gun as main armament for a cruiser. He did not deny that a hit by a 20,3cm shell could cause much more damage than a 15,2cm shell. But it all depends on what was the target. That were in fact merchant ships, light units below the 3.000 ton and cruisers with an armour of just 6cm or with only the vital parts protected (by 1015cm). The high explosive shell was just effective against armour with a maximum thickness of 30cm regardless a calibre of 6” or 8”. While a 6” gun had a larger rate of fire was she even more effective than a 8” gun. Using shells suitable for penetrating armour was on a longer distance the 8” gun more effective, dealing with a thickness of 6cm no difference but with a thickness of 10cm and more was a 6” shell just able to penetrate on short distance from the opponent. The maximum range of a 6” gun was 25 and that of a 8” gun 30 kilometres. But still the rate of fire of a 6” was higher, a larger number was better for the fire control, easier to man and mechanical problems were less fatale than with 8” guns. Reckoning that a 6” gun had 75% of the score of a 8” guns he calculated the several options with as main conclusion that the main armament of a cruiser should be 6” and not 8“. The 5x3 gun arrangement was the most promising with the highest probably score.

With a 5x3-15,2cm/6” gun arrangement was the weight of the armament 750 tons, broadside weight salvo 750 kilo’s and a fire rate of 5 was it possible to fire 75 shells in a minute or every minute 3.750 kilo’s. Weight ammunition at 100 respectively 150 and 200 shots was 150, 225 and 300 tons. Weight armament and ammunition at 100 respectively 150 and 200 shots was 900,985 and 1.050 tons. Probable number of hits 56,25. 

Soviet Union kept naval shipbuilding program secret according to the Dutch magazine Marineblad 1939 no. 2

An item referred to the magazine Revista Marittime dated November 1938reporting that Russia still kept her navy building program secret despite that she ought to inform (confidential) England as a result of the naval treaty with that country. (1)

Note
1,.The Anglo-Soviet Naval Agreement of 1937. 

Anti aircraft pontoons better than into aircraft defence vessels converted destroyers according to the Dutch magazine Marineblad 1939 no. 4

An item referred to the magazine Marine Rundschau dated January 1939 reporting that the conversions of aged destroyers into aircraft defence vessels criticised because experts doubted if there was a sufficient control of fire possible for this kind of very active ships. For the air defence the harbours of London, England and other cities was proposed to use pontoons fitted out with an anti aircraft armament in stead. The pontoons could at the same time be used as ammunition ships and accommodation ship and anchored nearby the object to be defended. It seems to be that already such pontoons at Whale Island near Portsmouth, England were tested. 

Lithuania wanted to increase her navy according to the Dutch magazine Marineblad 1939 no. 2

An item referred to the Revista Marittime dated November 1938 reporting that the Lithuanian navy consisted on that moment of 1-500 ton patrol vessel which was a former minesweeper.(1) At that moment was the building of a cruiser and a gunboat by Italian shipyards ordered.

Note
1. In 1937 purchased as the former German minesweeper M59 and commissioned as the training ship Prezidentas Smetona, seized by the Soviet Union on 15 June 1940, commissioned as the Kopan and sunk while striking a mine in January 1945. 

Soviet navy shipyards in the Baltic lacking sufficient capacity according to the Dutch magazine Marineblad 1939 no. 2

An item referred to the Revista Marittime dated November 1938 reporting that the crews of the Baltic fleet did everything in the winter of 1937-1938 to repair and prepare the ships before going to sea again. The major part was indeed ready to participate the manoeuvres when the ice broke. Despite that the roads of Kronstadt on 9 April still was half frozen started two submarines with the training followed a few days later by other with individual trainings. It became clear that the navy shipyards even for the normal repairs were lacking sufficient capacity while some ships just after a considerable long period could go to sea. 

Dutch destroyer Hr.Ms. Isaac Sweers (G83) 1938-1942

Admiralen-class




Of the Gerard Callenburgh-class consisting of the Philips van Almonde, Isaac Sweers and Tjerk Hides, preceded by the Admiral-class and succeeded by the Holland-class. Central administration by the Rotterdamsche Droogdok Maatschappij. 816 Ton of steel ordered on 10 November 1937, steel arrived at the shipyard on 2 May 1938, building ordered on 19 May 1938, contract signed on 13 June/8 September 1938m administration started on 17 June 1938, laid down in shed at the eastside on the island of the shipyard Kon. Mij. De Schelde with yard number 212 on 28 November 1938, boilers placed between 3-5 January 1940, launched by Mrs. J.L.B. v.d. Arend-Keers on 16 March 1940, stability test on 26 March 1940, escaped still uncompleted from the yard towards Portsmouth, England supported by the Dutch tug Zwarte Zee on 10 May 1940, arrived there on 12 May 1940, completed and commissioned on 24 May 1941 and torpedoed in the Mediterranean by the German submarines U-431 on 13 November 1942 causing the death of 108 men. Super visor during the building on behalf of the Royal Netherlands Navy was chief engineer G. ‘t Hooft.

The technical details according to the yard order administration. Displacement 1.628 (standard)-1.922 (trial with a draught of 3,10 metres)-2.252 (fully loaded) tons and as dimensions 105 (between perpendiculars)-106,30 (over all) x 10,30 c 6,17 (height) x 3,10 (trial)-3,50 metres. Fitted out with 17 water and oil tight bulkheads. Crew numbered 150-194 men. Fuel oil bunker capacity 590 ton. Drinkwater capacity 38 ton and feed water capacity 25 ton. Horsepower 45.000ahp. Speed 36 knots. Number of screws 2. Armament consisted of 2x2-12cm and 1-12cm/4.7” guns, 2-4cm machine guns, 2x4-12,7mm/0.50” machineguns, 2x4 torpedo guns (for which 8 torpedoes were available), 9 depth charges, and 24 mines. Could carry a Fokker aircraft with her.

In practice consisted the armament of 3x2-10,2cm/4” cal 45 Mk XVI quick firing guns, 2x2-cm/1.6” cal 56 Bofors No. 3 anti aircraft guns, 2x4-12,7mm/0.50” cal 52 Vickers Mk III machineguns and 2x4-53,3cm/21” torpedo tubes. The 3 Yarrow Parsons geared turbines and 3 Yarrow boilers supplied 45.000hp allowing a speed of 37,5 knots and with a speed of 15 knots a range of 3.200 nautical miles.

French steamship Godavery arrived in the Dutch East Indies coming from Singapore according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 10 August 1889

An item dated Batavia, Dutch East Indies 10th reported the arrival of the French steamship Godavery master Frager coming from Singapore, shipping agents Mess. Maritimes. 

Dutch steamship Batavia underway from the Netherlands towards the Dutch East Indiesaccording to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 10 August 1889

An item dated 9th reported the passing of Nieuw Anjer, Dutch East Indies by the Dutch steamship Batavia underway from Rotterdam, Netherlands towards Batavia, Dutch East Indies.(1)

Note
1. Call sign NGPW, screw steamship, homeport Rotterdam, Netherlands, horsepower 200hp and net capacity 4.604,44 cubic metres/1.625,37 tons of 2,83 cubic metres. 

Dutch East Indies schooner Tjin Ek Hong cruising in the Dutch East Indies according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 8 August 1889

An item dated Batavia, Dutch East Indies 8th reported the departure of the Dutch East Indies schooner Tjin Ek Hong master Darman towards Telok Betong, Dutch East Indies.(1)

Note
1. Or Tjien Ek Hong, call sign TJFL, homeport Batavia and net capacity 192,47 cubic metres/68,01 tons of 2,83 cubic metres. 

Dutch East Indies steamship Baron van Tuyll cruising in the Dutch East Indies according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 8 August 1889

An item dated Batavia, Dutch East Indies 8th reported the departure of the Dutch East Indies steamship Baron van Tuyll master Mondt towards Billiton, Dutch East Indies.(1)

Note
1. Call sign TBSG, homeport Batavia and net tonnage 601,96 cubic metres/212,70 tons of 2,83 cubic metres. 

Dutch steamship Zeeland cruising in the Dutch East Indies according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 7 August 1889

An item dated Batavia, Dutch East Indies  reported the arrival of the Dutch steamship Zeeland master Kromwijk coming from Tagal, Dutch East Indies, shipping agents Rotterdamsche Lloyd.(1)

Note
1. Call sign QCWT, horsepower 220hp, homeport Rotterdam and net capacity 4.288,24 cubic metres/1.513,75 tons of 2,83 cubic metres. 

Thursday, 16 November 2017

Norwegian bulk carrier (ex-Cape Rodney 1976-1985, Rodney 1985-1986) CHL Innovator 1986-

Schelde off Vlissingen, Netherlands 10 November 2017

Singapore-flagged, IMO 7342469, MMSI 563410000 and call sign 9VNG. Ex-Cape Rodney renamed 1985 and Rodney renamed 1986. Owned and managed by Gearbulk Norway, Bergen, Norway. Built by BAE Systems Surface Ships Govan, Glasgow, United Kingdom in 1976. 

British general cargo ship (ex-Monica C 2009-2014) Wes Monica 2014-

Schelde off Vlissingen, Netherlands 12 November 2017

Antigua&Barbuda-flagged, IMO 9432517, MMSI 304014000 and cal sign V2GN6. Ex-Monica C renamed 7 March 2014. Owned by Carisbrooke Shipping UK, Cowes, Isle of Wight and managed by Carisbrooke Shipmanagement, Leer, Germany. Built by Jiangsu Yangzijang Shipyard, Jiangyin, China in 2009. 

Dutch steamship Prins van Oranje cruising in the Dutch East Indies according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 10 August 1889

An item dated Batavia, Dutch East Indies 9th reported the departure of the Dutch steamship Prins van Oranje master Van der Woude towards Cheribon, Samarang, Surabaya and Joana, Dutch East Indies.(1)

Note 
1. Call sign PQNL, screw steamship, horsepower 400hp, homeport Amsterdam, Netherlands and net capacity 1,829ton/6.073,94 cubic metres/2.144,10 tons of 2,83 cubic metres. 

Dutch East Indies steamship Mayflower underway from the Netherlands towards Singapore according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 10 August 1889

An item dated Batavia, Dutch East Indies 10th reported the departure of the Dutch East Indies steamship Mayflower master Niederfuhr towards Singapore.(1)

Note
1. Call sign TGKS, homeport Palembang, Dutch East Indies and net capacity 644,31 cubic metres/227,67 tons of 2,83 cubic metres. 

Dutch East Indies steamship Cheribon cruising in the Dutch East Indies according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 10 August 1889

An item dated Batavia, Dutch East Indies 10th reported the departure of the Dutch East Indies steamship Cheribon master Krijger towards Cheribon, Tagal, Pecalongan, Samarang and Surabaya, Dutch East Indies.(1)

Note
1. Call sign TCLB, homeport Batavia and net capacity 1.184,62 cubic metress/418,59 tons of. 283 cubic metres. 

Dutch steamship Zeeland underway towards Ceylon, France and the Netherlands according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 10 August 1889

An item dated Batavia, Dutch East Indies 10th reported the departure of the Dutch steamship Zeeland master Kromwijk towards Colombo (Ceylon), Marseille (France) and Rotterdam (Netherlands).(1)

Note
1. Call sign QCWT, horsepower 220hp, homeport Rotterdam and net capacity 4.288,24 cubic metres/1.513,75 tons of 2,83 cubic metres. 

Dutch East Indies schooner Apie Maas cruising in the Dutch East Indies according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 10 August 1889

An item dated Batavia, Dutch East Indies 10th reported the departure of the Dutch East Indies schooner Apie Maas master Mohamad Djoeat towards Bantam, Dutch East Indies.(1)

Note
1. Call sign TBLN, homeport Muntok, Dutch East Indies and net capacity 21,87 cubic metres/75,21 tons of 2,83 cubic metres. 

Japanese bulk carrier King Barley 2012-

Schelde off Vlissingen, Netherlands 12 November 2017

Panama-flagged, IMO 9583160, MMSI 373049000 and call sign 3FMD8. Owned and managed by MMS, Tokyo, Japan. Built by Tsuneishi Shipbuilding, Fukuyama, Japan in 2012. 

Singapore oil/chemical tanker (ex-Siva Ghent 2011-2013) Bochem Ghent 2013-

Schelde off Vlissingen, Netherlands 11 November 2017

Hong Kong-flagged, IMO 9565649, MMSI 477351300 and call sign VRIA8. Ex-Siva Ghent renamed June 2013. Owned by Siva Ships International, Singapore and managed by Fairfield Chemical Carriers, Wilton, Connecticut, USA. Built by Kitanihon Shipbuilding, Hachinohe, Japan in 2011. 

British schooner Bessie underway from Singapore towards Mauritius according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 27 August 1889

An item dated 26th reported the passing of Nieuw Anjer, Dutch East Indies by the British schooner Bessie underway from Singapore towards Mauritius. 

British bark Sanjore underway from the Philippines towards Canada according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 27 August 1889

An item dated 25th reported the passing of Nieuw Anjer, Dutch East Indies by the British bark Sanjore underway from Ilo-Ilo, Philippines towards Montreal, Canada. 

British bark Diana underway from the Dutch East Indies towards the Channel according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 23 August 1889

An item dated 21th reported the passing of Nieuw Anjer, Dutch East Indies by the British bark Diana underway from Bezoeki. Dutch East Indies towards the Channel. 

British steamship Celestial cruising in the Dutch East Indies according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 10 August 1889

An item dated Batavia, Dutch East Indies 10th reported the departure of the British steamship Celestial master Follett towards Cheribon, Dutch East Indies. 

Wednesday, 15 November 2017

Japanese oil/chemical tanker Chemstar Jewel 2012-

Schelde off Vlissingen, Netherlands 10 November 2017

Panama-flagged, IMO 9624782, MMSI 373353000 and call sign 3FNI3. Built by Asakawa Shipbuilding, Imabari, Japan in 2012. Owned and managed by Iino Marine Services, Tokyo, Japan in 2012. 

Monaco LPG tanker Cheyenne 2015-

Schelde off Vlissingen, Netherlands 5 November 2017

Bahamas-flagged, homeport Nassau, IMO 9706504, MMSI 311000387 and call sign C6BW8. Owned and managed by Scorpio Commercial Management, Monaco. Built by Hyundai Samho Heavy Industries, Samho, South Koreas as the Marshall Islands-flagged Hyundai Samho S756 in 2015. 

Appraisal of 4x3-15,2cm/6” gun arrangement for cruisers by Italian naval expert Bianco di San Secondo according to the Dutch magazine Marineblad dated 1938 no. 7

An item referred to the Rivista Marittime dated July/August 1938 which published an article written by colonel of naval weapons Bianco di San Secondo in which he made clear why 15,2cm/6” gun were to preferred above the 20,3cm/8” gun as main armament for a cruiser. He did not deny that a hit by a 20,3cm shell could cause much more damage than a 15,2cm shell. But it all depends on what was the target. That were in fact merchant ships, light units below the 3.000 ton and cruisers with an armour of just 6cm or with only the vital parts protected (by 1015cm). The high explosive shell was just effective against armour with a maximum thickness of 30cm regardless a calibre of 6” or 8”. While a 6” gun had a larger rate of fire was she even more effective than a 8” gun. Using shells suitable for penetrating armour was on a longer distance the 8” gun more effective, dealing with a thickness of 6cm no difference but with a thickness of 10cm and more was a 6” shell just able to penetrate on short distance from the opponent. The maximum range of a 6” gun was 25 and that of a 8” gun 30 kilometres. But still the rate of fire of a 6” was higher, a larger number was better for the fire control, easier to man and mechanical problems were less fatale than with 8” guns. Reckoning that a 6” gun had 75% of the score of a 8” guns he calculated the several options with as main conclusion that the main armament of a cruiser should be 6” and not 8“. The 5x3 gun arrangement was the most promising with the highest probably score.

With a 4x3-15,2cm/6” gun arrangement was the weight of the armament 600 tons, broadside weight salvo 600 kilo’s and a fire rate of 5 was it possible to fire 60 shells in a minute or every minute 3.000 kilo’s. Weight ammunition at 100 respectively 150 and 200 shots was 120, 185 and 240 tons. Weight armament and ammunition at 100 respectively 150 and 200 shots was 720, 780 and 840 tons. Probable number of hits 45. 

Appraisal of 2x3&2x2-15,2cm/6” gun arrangement for cruisers by Italian naval expert Bianco di San Secondo according to the Dutch magazine Marineblad dated 1938 no. 7

An item referred to the Rivista Marittime dated July/August 1938 which published an article written by colonel of naval weapons Bianco di San Secondo in which he made clear why 15,2cm/6” gun were to preferred above the 20,3cm/8” gun as main armament for a cruiser. He did not deny that a hit by a 20,3cm shell could cause much more damage than a 15,2cm shell. But it all depends on what was the target. That were in fact merchant ships, light units below the 3.000 ton and cruisers with an armour of just 6cm or with only the vital parts protected (by 1015cm). The high explosive shell was just effective against armour with a maximum thickness of 30cm regardless a calibre of 6” or 8”. While a 6” gun had a larger rate of fire was she even more effective than a 8” gun. Using shells suitable for penetrating armour was on a longer distance the 8” gun more effective, dealing with a thickness of 6cm no difference but with a thickness of 10cm and more was a 6” shell just able to penetrate on short distance from the opponent. The maximum range of a 6” gun was 25 and that of a 8” gun 30 kilometres. But still the rate of fire of a 6” was higher, a larger number was better for the fire control, easier to man and mechanical problems were less fatale than with 8” guns. Reckoning that a 6” gun had 75% of the score of a 8” guns he calculated the several options with as main conclusion that the main armament of a cruiser should be 6” and not 8“. The 5x3 gun arrangement was the most promising with the highest probably score.

With a 2x3&2x2-15,2cm/6” gun arrangement was the weight of the armament 540 tons, broadside weight salvo 500 kilo’s and a fire rate 5 of was it possible to fire 52 shells in a minute or every minute 2.500 kilo’s. Weight ammunition at 100 respectively 150 and 200 shots was 100, 150 and 200 tons. Weight armament and ammunition at 100 respectively 150 and 200 shots was 640, 610 and 740 tons. Probable number of hits 37,50. 

American ship Annie H. Smith underway from the USA towards China according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 10 August 1889

An item dated 9th reported the passing of Nieuw Anjer, Dutch East Indies by the American ship Annie H. Smith underway from New York, USA towards Shanghai, China. 

Norwegian shuttle tanker Ingrid Knutsen 2013-


Schelde off Vlissingen, Netherlands 5 November 2017

United Kingdom-flagged, homeport Aberdeen, IMO 9649225, MMSI 235103057 and call sign 2HERS. Built by Hyundai Heavy Industries, Ulsan, South Korea in 2013. Owned by Knutsen OAS Shipping and managed by Knot Management, both of Haugesund, Norway. 

British ship Goldenhorn underway from French Indochina towards Queenstown according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 8 August 1889

An item dated 6th reported the passing of Nieuw Anjer, Dutch East Indies by the British ship Goldenhorn underway from Saigon, French Indochina towards Queenstown. 

British steamship Devonshire underway from the Dutch East Indies towards Egypt according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 8 August 1889

An item dated Batavia, Dutch East Indies 8th reported the departure of the British steamship Devonshire master Purvis towards Port Saïd, Egypt. 

German bark Elisabeth Rickmers underway from Thailand towards Germany according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 10 August 1889

An item dated 8th reported the passing of Nieuw Anjer, Dutch East Indies by the German bark Elisabeth Rickmers underway from Bangkok, Thailand towards Bremen, Germany. 

Tuesday, 14 November 2017

Singapore bulk carrier Mandarin Fortune 2008-

Schelde off Vlissingen, Netherlands 5 November 2017

Singapore-flagged, IMO 9478169, MMSI 563838000 and call sign S6BQ7. Owned and managed by Da Sin Shipping, Singapore. Owned and managed by Jiangsu Hantong Ship Heavy Industry, Tongzhou, China. 

British ship Baron Blantyre arrived in the Dutch East Indies coming from England according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 23 August 1889

An item reported the arrival of the British ship Baron Blantyre off Anjer, Dutch East Indies loaded with coal coming from Cardiff, United Kingdom waiting for orders. 

Italian steamship Palestro arrived in the Dutch East Indies coming from Japan according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 23 August 1889

An item dated Batavia, Dutch East Indies 23rd reported the arrival of the Italian steamship Palestro coming from Kobe, Japan, shipping agents Mclaine Watson&Co. 

Dutch East Indies steamship Cheribon cruising in the Dutch East Indies according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 23 August 1889

An item dated Batavia, Dutch East Indies 22nd reported the arrival of the Dutch East Indies steamship Cheribon master Krijger coming from Surabaya, Dutch East Indies. Shipping agents N.T. St. Maatschappij.(1)

Note
1. Call sign TCLB, homeport Batavia and net capacity 1.184,62 cubic metres/418,59 tons of 2,83 cubic metres. 

Dutch East Indies bark Borneo cruising in the Dutch East Indies according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 23 August 1889

An item dated Batavia, Dutch East Indies 23rd reported the departure of the Dutch East Indies bark Borneo master Tjong Tjin Koeij towards Surabaya, Dutch East Indies.(1)

Note
1. Call sign TCJB, homeport Bandjermassin, Dutch East Indies and net capacity 1.231,30 cubic metres/425,08 tons of 2,83 cubic metres. 

Dutch steamship Bromo arrived in the Dutch East Indies coming from the Netherlands and France according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 21 August 1889

An item dated Batavia, Dutch East Indies 21st reported the arrival of the Dutch steamship Bromo coming from Rotterdam, Netherlands and Marseille, France, shipping agents Rotterdamsche Lloyd.(1)

Note
1. Homeport Rotterdam, call sign NHKS and net capacity 5.124,93 cubic metres/1.810,91 tons of 2,83 cubic metres. 

Dutch tug Sil-Jeske-B 2015-



Inner harbour of Vlissingen, Netherlands of 4 November 2017

Netherlands-flagged, homeport Zierikzee, Netherlands, IMO 9769245, MMSI 244870247 and call sign PDCJ. Completed by Gebr. Kooiman, Zwijndrecht, Netherlands with yard number 207for account of Koedood BV, Hendrik-Ido-Ambacht in October 2015. Operated by BMS Seatowage BV/W. Bouwman Marine Service BV, Zierikzee, Netherlands. Gross tonnage 239 tons, deadweight 78 tons and as dimensions 23,95 (over all) x 8,00 x 3,20 (maximum) x 6,80 (minimum air draft) metres. Bollard pull 30,6 tons. 

Dutch trawler Tunis Van Luut (UK-224) 1998-



Inner harbour of Vlissingen, Netherlands of 4 November 2017

Netherlands-flagged, IMO 9044786, MMSI 246015000 and call sign PGBK. Built by Scheepswerf Maaskant, Stellendam, Netherlands in 1998. 

Appraisal of 3x3-20,3cm/8” gun arrangement for cruisers by Italian naval expert Bianco di San Secondo according to the Dutch magazine Marineblad dated 1938 no. 7

An item referred to the Rivista Marittime dated July/August 1938 which published an article written by colonel of naval weapons Bianco di San Secondo in which he made clear why 15,2cm/6” gun were to preferred above the 20,3cm/8” gun as main armament for a cruiser. He did not deny that a hit by a 20,3cm shell could cause much more damage than a 15,2cm shell. But it all depends on what was the target. That were in fact merchant ships, light units below the 3.000 ton and cruisers with an armour of just 6cm or with only the vital parts protected (by 1015cm). The high explosive shell was just effective against armour with a maximum thickness of 30cm regardless a calibre of 6” or 8”. While a 6” gun had a larger rate of fire was she even more effective than a 8” gun. Using shells suitable for penetrating armour was on a longer distance the 8” gun more effective, dealing with a thickness of 6cm no difference but with a thickness of 10cm and more was a 6” shell just able to penetrate on short distance from the opponent. The maximum range of a 6” gun was 25 and that of a 8” gun 30 kilometres. But still the rate of fire of a 6” was higher, a larger number was better for the fire control, easier to man and mechanical problems were less fatale than with 8” guns. Reckoning that a 6” gun had 75% of the score of a 8” guns he calculated the several options with as main conclusion that the main armament of a cruiser should be 6” and not 8“. The 5x3 gun arrangement was the most promising with the highest probably score.

With a 3x3-20,3cm/8” gun arrangement was the weight of the armament 1.020 tons, broadside weight salvo 1.125 kilo’s and a fire rate of 3 was it possible to fire 27 shells in a minute or every minute 3.375 kilo’s. Weight ammunition at 100 respectively 150 and 200 shots was 171,257 and 342 tons. Weight armament and ammunition at 100 respectively 150 and 200 shots was 1.191, 1.277 and 1.362 tons. Probable number of hits 27. 

Appraisal of 4x2-20,3cm/8” gun arrangement for cruisers by Italian naval expert Bianco di San Secondo according to the Dutch magazine Marineblad dated 1938 no. 7

An item referred to the Rivista Marittime dated July/August 1938 which published an article written by colonel of naval weapons Bianco di San Secondo in which he made clear why 15,2cm/6” gun were to preferred above the 20,3cm/8” gun as main armament for a cruiser. He did not deny that a hit by a 20,3cm shell could cause much more damage than a 15,2cm shell. But it all depends on what was the target. That were in fact merchant ships, light units below the 3.000 ton and cruisers with an armour of just 6cm or with only the vital parts protected (by 1015cm). The high explosive shell was just effective against armour with a maximum thickness of 30cm regardless a calibre of 6” or 8”. While a 6” gun had a larger rate of fire was she even more effective than a 8” gun. Using shells suitable for penetrating armour was on a longer distance the 8” gun more effective, dealing with a thickness of 6cm no difference but with a thickness of 10cm and more was a 6” shell just able to penetrate on short distance from the opponent. The maximum range of a 6” gun was 25 and that of a 8” gun 30 kilometres. But still the rate of fire of a 6” was higher, a larger number was better for the fire control, easier to man and mechanical problems were less fatale than with 8” guns. Reckoning that a 6” gun had 75% of the score of a 8” guns he calculated the several options with as main conclusion that the main armament of a cruiser should be 6” and not 8“. The 5x3 gun arrangement was the most promising with the highest probably score.

With a 4x2-20,3cm/8” gun arrangement was the weight of the armament 1.080 tons, broadside weight salvo 1.000 kilo’s and a fire rate of 3 was it possible to fire 24 shells in a minute or every minute 3.000 kilo’s. Weight ammunition at 100 respectively 150 and 200 shots was 152, 228 and 304 tons. Weight armament and ammunition at 100 respectively 150 and 200 shots was 1.232, 1.308 and 1.384 tons. Probable number of hits 24. 

Appraisal of 3x2-20,3cm/8” gun arrangement for cruisers by Italian naval expert Bianco di San Secondo according to the Dutch magazine Marineblad dated 1938 no. 7

An item referred to the Rivista Marittime dated July/August 1938 which published an article written by colonel of naval weapons Bianco di San Secondo in which he made clear why 15,2cm/6” gun were to preferred above the 20,3cm/8” gun as main armament for a cruiser. He did not deny that a hit by a 20,3cm shell could cause much more damage than a 15,2cm shell. But it all depends on what was the target. That were in fact merchant ships, light units below the 3.000 ton and cruisers with an armour of just 6cm or with only the vital parts protected (by 1015cm). The high explosive shell was just effective against armour with a maximum thickness of 30cm regardless a calibre of 6” or 8”. While a 6” gun had a larger rate of fire was she even more effective than a 8” gun. Using shells suitable for penetrating armour was on a longer distance the 8” gun more effective, dealing with a thickness of 6cm no difference but with a thickness of 10cm and more was a 6” shell just able to penetrate on short distance from the opponent. The maximum range of a 6” gun was 25 and that of a 8” gun 30 kilometres. But still the rate of fire of a 6” was higher, a larger number was better for the fire control, easier to man and mechanical problems were less fatale than with 8” guns. Reckoning that a 6” gun had 75% of the score of a 8” guns he calculated the several options with as main conclusion that the main armament of a cruiser should be 6” and not 8“. The 5x3 gun arrangement was the most promising with the highest probably score.

With a 3x2-20,3cm/8” gun arrangement was the weight of the armament 810 tons, broadside weight salvo 750 kilo’s and a fire rate of 3 was it possible to fire 18 shells in a minute or every minute 2.250 kilo’s. Weight ammunition at 100 respectively 150 and 200 shots was 114, 171 and 288 tons. Weight armament and ammunition at 100 respectively 150 and 200 shots was 924, 981 and 1.038 tons. Probable number of hits 18. 

Monday, 13 November 2017

German rear admiral Grassmann discussed the needed cruiser types according to the Dutch magazine Marineblad dated 1938 no. 7

An item referred to the Militär Wissenschaftliche Rundschau where an article of admiral Grassman was published evaluating the needed types of cruisers.
For protecting merchant ships within the range of naval bases were 6.000-8.000 ton cruiser perfect at open sea. Their rearmament was to consist of 4-20,3cm/8” guns and the armour able to protected against 15cm/5.9” shells. The maximum speed was to be 3 knots. Further more was such cruiser able to take 4-6 planes with her.
For supporting the fleet was a cruiser of 4.000-5.000 ton, light armoured just protecting the vital parts, a speed of around 40 knots, an armament of  6-15cm/5.9” (3 fore, 3aft) and a strong anti-aircraft battery the ideal type for reconnaissance, protection of the weaker units and battling with destroyers and torpedo boats. For tactical reconnaissance during a sea battle was the modern large destroyer the best solution.
For disturbing enemy shipping lines was each fighting unit ranging from battleship to submarine usable. If naval powers wanted to use a cruiser as merchant destroyer was a special cruiser to be designed. Lacking nearby naval bases was the fast cruiser dating from the second part of the First World War the ideal type for such purpose.
His main conclusion was a cruise suitable for tasks did not exist.

Note
1. Werner Grassmann (9 March 1888 Berlin, Germany-20 October 943 Berlin, Germany), promoted to the rank of rear admiral on 1 October 1937 and to vice admiral on 1 January 1940. Entered the Imperial Navy on 3April 1907 and retired on 31 May 1943. 

Monaco oil/chemical tanker (ex-Antignano 2002-2012) Duke-1 2012-

Schelde off Vlissingen, Netherlands 12 November 2017

Panama-flagged, IMO 9228784, MMSI 352642000 and call sign 3FBO. Ex-Antignano renamed December 2012. Owned and managed by Sea World Management, Monaco. Built by Hyundai Mipo Dockyard, Ulsan, South Korea in 2002. 

Chinese reefer Star Trust 2009-

Schelde off Vlissingen, Netherlands 12 November 2017

Singapore-flagged, IMO 9438511, MMSI 566049000 and call sign 9V9353. Owned by OOCL, Hong Kong, China and managed by Philsynergy Maritime, Manila, Philippines. Built by Shikoku Dockyard, Takamatsu, Japan in 2009. 

Greek crude oil tanker (ex-Magas 2000-2006, Ivan Kruzenshtern 2006-2007, Green Forest 2007-2012) Ice Condor 2012-

Schelde off Vlissingen, Netherlands 12 November 2017

Russia-flagged, IMO 9171187, MMSI 273434350 and call sign UENT. Ex Magas renamed April 2006, Ivan Kruzenshtern renamed November 2007 and Green Forest renamed November 2012. Earlier Malta-flagged with as homeport Valletta. Owned and managed by Roswell Tankers. Athens, Greece. Built by Admiralty Wharves, St. Petersburg, Russia in 2000. 

German bulk carrier (ex-Asian Wind 2011-2015) North Wind 2015-

Schelde off Vlissingen, Netherlands 12 November 2017

Liberia-flagged, homeport Monrovia, IMO 9616606, MMSI 636015347 and call sign D5AC3. Built by Nikka Shipbuilding, Nantong, China in 2011. As the Asian Wind owned and managed by International Maritime Advisors&Management, Shanghai, China. As North Wind owned by Dr. Olav Killinger’s Kontor 17 Shipmanagement GmbH&Co. KG, Hamburg, Germany. 

British steamship Recorders underway from the Dutch East Indies towards Singapore according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 27 August 1889

An item dated 24th reported the passing of Nieuw Anjer, Dutch East Indies by the British steamship Recorders underway from Anjer towards Singapore. 

British steamship Jumna underway from the Dutch East Indies towards England according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 23 August 1889

An item dated Batavia, Dutch East Indies 23rd reported the departure of the British steamship Jumna master Smith towards London, England.

British steamship Celestial cruising in the Dutch East Indies according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 23 August 1889

An item dated Batavia, Dutch East Indies 22nd reported the departure of the British steamship Celestial master Follett underway towards Cheribon, Dutch East Indies. 

British steamship Cascapedia passing Nieuw Anjer, Dutch East Indies according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 21 August 1889

An item dated 20th reported the passing of Nieuw Anjer, Dutch East Indies by the British steamship Cascapedia underway from the North towards the West. 

British steamship Port Victor underway from the Dutch East Indies towards Egypt according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 21 August 1889

An item dated 19th reported the passing of Nieuw Anjer, Dutch East Indies by the British steamship Port Victor underway from Batavia, Dutch East Indies towards Port Saïd, Egypt. 

Sunday, 12 November 2017

Canadian HMCS frigate Montréal (FFH336) 1991-




Schelde off Vlissingen, Netherlands 12 November 2017

Canada-flagged, homeport Halifax, MMSI 31629000 and call sign CGAG. Halifax-class. Motto Ton Bras Sait Porter L; Epée. Laid down by Saint John Shipbuilding Limited, Saint John, Canada on 8 February 1991, launched on 28 February 1992, commissioned on 21 July 1994 and modernized July 2012-July 2013.

Displacement 3.995 (light)-4.795 (operational)-5.032 (deep load) tons and as dimensions 134,2 x 16,5 x 7,1 metres or 440 x 54 x 23 feet. The machinery consists of 2 LM2500 gas turbines and 1 SEMT Pielstick diesel engine.. Speed 30 knots and a range of 9.500 nautical miles. The crew numbers 225 men including personnel for the CH-148 Cyclone helicopter. Armament consist of 1-5,7cm Bofors Mk3 gun, 1-2cm Vulcan Phalanx CIWS system, 6-12,7mm/05.“machineguns, 24 Honeywell Mk46 torpedoes, 16 Evolved Sea-Sparrow SAM missiles, 8 RGM-84 Harpoon SSM missiles. 

Japanese navy building aircraft carriers and seaplane tenders according to the Dutch magazine Marineblad dated 1938 no. 5

Soryu

Kaga

Chitose

Kamikawa Mary seaplane tender (1937)

An item referred to the magazine Marine Rundschau dated March 1938 reporting that  that the Japanese navy with the building of the Hiryu (1) Soryu (2) and Koryu (3) would posses over 7 carriers namely the Kaga, 26.900 ton, 60 aircraft (4), Akagi , 26.900 tons, 48 aircraft (5), Hosho, 7,470 tons, 20 aircraft (6), Ryujo, 7.600 tons, 30 aircraft (7), Soryu and Hiryu, each 10.050 tons and 40 aircraft and the Koryu. Further more were the floatplane transports Kamoi 10 aircraft (7) and Notoro 10 aircraft (8) available with under construction the Midzuka (9), Chiyoda (10) en Chitose (11). These ships were also fitted out with a very high superstructure and probably fitted out with gyro stabilizers.

Notes
1. Built under the 1931-1932 Supplementary Program. Laid down by the Yokosuka Naval Arsenal on 8 July 1936, launched on 16 November 1937, commissioned on 5 July 1939 and scuttled after the Battle of Midway on 5 June 1942.
2. Built under the 1931-1932 Supplementary Program. Laid down by the Kure Arsenal on 20 November 1934, launched on 23 December 1935, commissioned on 29 December 1937 and scuttled after the Battle of Midway on 5 June 1942.
3. ?
4. Originally laid down as a Tosa-class battleship by Kawasaki and Yokosuka Naval Arsenal on 19 July 1920, converted into an aircraft carrier, completed on 31 March 1928, commissioned on 30 November 1929, refitted between 20 October 1933-25 June 1935 and scuttled at the Battle of Midway on 4 June 1942.
5. Originally laid down as an Amagi-class battle cruiser by Kure Naval Arsenal on 6 December 1920, converted into an aircraft carrier, commissioned on 25 March 1927, refitted between 24 October 1935-21 August 1938 and scuttled after the Battle of Midway on 5 June 1942.
6. Laid down by Mitsubishi, Yokohama, Japan on 26 November 1929, launched on 2 April 1931, commissioned on 9 May 1933 and sunk in the Battle of the Eastern Solomons on 24 August 1942.
7. Seaplane tender/tanker. Laid down by New York Shipbuilding on 14 September 1921, launched on 8 June 1922, completed on 12 September 1922, decommissioned on 3 May 1947 and broken up.
8. Seaplane tender/tanker. Laid down by Kawasaki, Kobe, Japan in November 1919, launched on 3 May 1920, completed on 20 September 1920, converted into a seaplane tender in 1934 and scuttled off Singapore on 12 January 1947.
9. The seaplane tender Mizuho, laid down by Kawasaki Shipbuilding, Kobe, Japan on 1 May 1937, launched on 16 May 1938, commissioned on 25 February 1939 and torpedoed and sunk by the American submarine USS Drum on 2 May 1942.
10. Chitose-class. Building ordered in 1934, laid down by Kure Naval Arsenal on 14 December 1936, launched on 19 November 1937, commissioned on 15 December 1938,reclassified as light carrier on 15 December 1943 and sunk in the Battle of Leyte Gulf on 25 October 1944.
11. Chitose-class. Laid down by Kure Naval Arsenal on 26 November 1934, launched on 29 November 1936, commissioned on 25 July 1938, reclassified as light carrier on 15 December 1943 and sunk in the Battle of Leyte Gulf on 25 October 1944. 

Oil bunker capacity at Cape Town, South Africa realized according to the Dutch magazine Marineblad dated 1938 no. 6

An item referred to the Revista Maritima dated July 1938 reporting that on a distance of 3 kilometres from Cape Town, South Africa were oil tanks with a capacity of 200.000 tons to be built and pipelines laid leading towards the harbour. 

According to the British Royal Navy were aircraft of the highest importance for successful anti-submarine warfare according to the Dutch magazine Marineblad dated 1938 no. 6

An item referred to the U.S.R. dated 30 June 1938 reporting that the British Royal Navy held training in the Irish Sea and in the British Channel what the possibilities for a submarine were to attack without being sighted by an aircraft. The common believe was that the submarines had little chance although it was not to be forgotten that submarines could operate even in worth weather when air support/reconnaissance was impossible. 

British navy lieutenant W.J. van de Kasteele asked for development two kinds of destroyers according to the Dutch magazine Marineblad dated 1938 no. 6

An item referred to the magazine R.U.S.I. dated August 1938 where a note was published by lieutenant W.J. van de Kasteele (1) of the British Royal Navy. In his opinion could until the battle fleet was thoroughly modernized/renewed the enemy always could escape from a major sea battle due being much faster. The only solution to prevent the enemy from escaping was by numerous attacks of destroyers and slowing her down until the artillery could do her work. Although torpedo planes could be used for the same purpose was their disadvantage the dependency on suitable weather conditions. On of the major tasks of the destroyer was still this fixation of the enemy battle fleet. In the last period however were the destroyers developed into small cruisers. The main armament of the British Tribal class (2) was no longer the torpedo tubes but the artillery. One opinion was that destroyers needed such heavy artillery to make possible to obtain a positive position for launching their torpedoes. Another opinion was that mainly cruisers were responsible for defending destroyer flotillas. Van de Kasteele plead for two types of destroyers namely a torpedo boat and a fleet gunboat or super destroyer. The torpedo boats should have a maximum displacement of around 1.000 ton, a minimum speed of 40 miles and an armament of 2 sets torpedo guns to which a couple of 12cm guns were added. If higher speeds were required was it logical to develop the motor torpedo boat (MTB) design for that purpose although the dependency on suitable weather conditions was a disadvantage. A further development of the Tribal-class into the desired super destroyer was suggested. Such super destroyer was support the attack of the more conventional destroyers/torpedo boats.

Notes
1. William John (“Jack”) Van de Kasteele (1913 Devonport-13 October 1941 due to an explosion on board of HMS Norfolk)
2. The Tribal-class fast and powerful destroyers was a result of design studies for light fleet cruisers as a result by destroyer designs of Japan, Italy and Germany. The still existing Canadian HMCS Haida is the last of her kind. The original armament consisted of 4x2-12cm/4.7” quick firing Mk XII guns, 1x4-2pd quick firing anti-aircraft guns, 2x4-12.7mm/0.50” Mk III anti aircraft machineguns, 1x4-53,3cm/21” torpedo tubes amd20 depth charges. 

Moroccan light surveillance frigate Hassan II (612) 2001-



Schelde off Vlissingen, Netherlands 12 November 2017

Laid down by Chantiers de l’Atlantique, St. Nazaire, France in 2001, launched on 7 December 2001 and commissioned in 2002. Floréal-class. Displacement 2.600 (standard)-2.950 (full load) tons and as dimensions 93,5 x 14 x 4,4 metres. The machinery consisted of 4 SEMT-Pielstick PA6 L280 BTC diesels supplying 9,600hp allowing a speed of 20 knots and with a speed of 15 knots is the range 10.000 nautical miles. Crew numbered 120 men including 11 officers. The armament consists of 1-7,6cm/62,2 OTO Breda Compact gun and 2-2cm/90 Giat machineguns and further more 2 NN38Exocet SSM missiles. 

Hawaiian ship Toohng Soeij arrived in the Dutch East Indies coming from the Philippines according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 21 August 1889

An item dated Batavia, Dutch East Indies 20th reported the arrival of the Hawaiian ship Toohng Soeij master Newell coming from Ilo-Ilo, Philippines. 

British bark Africa cruising in the Dutch East Indies according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 21 August 1889

An item dated Batavia, Dutch East Indies 21st reported the departure of the British bark Africa master Buchana towards Samarang, Dutch East Indies. 

British steamship Kentigern cruising in the Dutch East Indies according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 21 August 1889

An item dated Batavia, Dutch East Indies 21st reported the departure of the British steamship Kentigern master Alexander towards Surabaya, Dutch East Indies. 

Dutch screw steamship Burgemeester den Tex cruising in the Dutch East Indies according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 21 August 1889

An item dated Batavia, Dutch East Indies 20th reported the departure of the Dutch steamship Burgemeester den Tex master Bruijns towards Cheribon, Dutch East Indies.(1)

Note
1. Screw steamship, homeport Rotterdam, Netherlands, horsepower 500hp, call sign NHMQ and net capacity 5.854,44 cibic metres/2.066,42 tons of 2,83 cubic metres. 

Dutch East Indies steamship Amboina cruising in the Dutch East Indies according to the Dutch newspaper Java-Bode dated 13 August 1889

An item dated Batavia, Dutch East Indies 13th reported the departure of the Dutch East Indies steamship Amboina master Rijnberg towards Muntok, Riouw, Singapore, Penang, Edi and Atjeh, Dutch East Indies.(1)

Note
1. Homeport Batavia, call sign TBJF and net capacity 1.377,41 cubic metres/486,71 tons of 2,83 cubic metres. 

Saturday, 11 November 2017

British warships HMS Volage and Hyacinth battling with Chinese war junks according to the Dutch newspaper Algemeen Handelsblad dated 17 February 1840

An item dated London, England 12th reported that the negotiations between the British captain Elliot (1) and the Chinese government failed and that the British warships Volage and Hyacinth fought with 30 Chinese war junks, the latter loosing 900 men?

Notes
1. Identical to Sir Charles Gilbert John Brydone Elliot (12 December 1818-21 May 1895), served within the British Royal Navy 1832-1888, dismissed in the rank of Admiral of the Fleet. His squadron fought on 25-27 May 1857 with a large Qing Chinese naval force at Escape Creek now known as East River, capturing or destroying 27 of the 41 war junks?
2. 6th Rate launched at Portsmouth Dockyard on 19 February 1825 and broken up by 12 December 1864.
3. 18-Gun sloop, laid down by Plymouth Dockyard in March 1826, launched on 6 May 1829 and by November 1871 broken up. 

Chinese government ordered building war junks according to the Dutch newspaper Nieuw Amsterdamsch handels- en effectible dated 2 December 1857

An item reported that the Chinese government sent a large of number of ships carpenters to Fat-San to built there 300 war junks. (1)

Note
1. Probably as a result of the Second Opium War 8 October 1856-24 October 1860 between Qing China and the allies United Kingdom and France. The USA supported the Allies military. 

British warships destroyed Chinese war junks in a battle off Canton according t the Dutch newspaper Leeuwarder courant dated 5 June 1857

An item referred to tidings received from Hong Kong dated 15th April reporting that off the entrance of the river of Canton the British Royal Navy fought with a large number of Chinese war junks of which 3 were destroyed. Important papers were find proving that the Mandarins at Canton were responsible for several assassinations on inhabitants in the colony. British commander of the steamships Hornet (1) and Sampson (2) and the ship of the line Sybille (3) was commodore Elliott.(40

Notes
1. Wood-built screw steam sloop of the Cruizer-class, building ordered on 1 November 1850, laid down at the Royal Dockyard Deptford in June 1851, launched on 13 April 1854, commissioned on 14 July 1845 and broken up in 1868.
2. Wood-built paddle frigate, building ordered in March 1841, launched at Woolwich on 1 October 1844 and sold in 1864.
3. A 36-gun 5th rate launched oat Pembroke n 15 April 1847 and broken up in 1866.
4. Sir Charles Gilbert John Brydone Elliot (12 December 1818-21 May 1895), served within the British Royal Navy 1832-1888, dismissed in the rank of Admiral of the Fleet. His squadron fought on 25-27 May 1857 with a large Qing Chinese naval force at Escape Creek now known as East River, capturing or destroying 27 of the 41 war junks. 

British warships destroyed part of Chinese pirate fleet according t the Dutch newspaper De Nederlander dated 16 January 1880

An item reported that the British Royal Navy during an expedition against the pirates active in Chinese waters destroyed several large war junks, about a third of the fleet of the pirate chief Chapouatsaï and in which event around 1.000 pirates were killed. 

Chinese navy to stop coolies trafficking off Macau according to the Dutch newspaper Tilburgsche courant dated 20 November 1873

An item referred to tidings received from China dated 8th October reporting that the Chinese government forbade all ships involved in the coolies trade to enter the Chinese waters. Chinese war junks were cruising off Macau which was considered to be the centre of the trafficking in coolies and ordered to stop involved Chinese vessels. It was known of also European vessels were to be stopped. 

Ningpo, China no longer a safe anchorage according to the Dutch newspaper De locomotief dated 15 October 1884

An item reported that due to the storm on 22nd September which harassed the Chinese waters nearly all junks loaded with stones to block the entrance of Ningpo were smashed on the rocks and sunk. Also a large Chinese war junk sunk. Two Chinese gunboats stationed off Chinhai and the old guard ship Pausang were also full loaded with stones to be used as bloc ship when needed. The inspector of the coastal service at Shanghai was telegrammed from Ninpo warning that all junks annex block ships sunk and that it was precisely known where the wrecks were lying. 

The American website Museum Ships covers nowadays the whole world

The Mercuur entering Vlissingen, Netherlands to her final berthing place (https://www.museumships.us/netherlands/mercuur)

There are ship enthusiasts all over the world who share the same love shipping and ships. That does not mean that everybody does that in the same way/ Some are visiting archives and libraries searching for the history of a seaman, a ship, a company or the maritime history of an area. Some are walking along the rivers and the coastline, in harbours or at shipyards. Some visit museums looking at paintings, drawings, models and other objects. But nothing is more exciting to visit on board of a ship, to explore it by yourself. To touch the history of ships out of the past. But are such ships still existing and if where. Yes, in your own country it’s easier to discover a museum ship but what about the rest of the world. Well there are some sites which can help you. Such a site is that of MUSEUM SHIPS. There is also a FACEBOOK and a twitteraccount (@museumships).

Starting with the USA the man behind the scene luckily enough for us decided to look outside the USA if there were more museum ships abroad. And yes they are, The result is an ever expanding website of former warships and merchant ships preserved as museum ships all over the world, from a mighty American battleship USS New Jersey to the much smaller Dutch minesweeper Hr.Ms. Onverschrokken (built in the USA) which became in the 1970’s the torpedo work ship Hr.Ms. Mercuur and the Bulgarian torpedo boat Drazki dating from the beginning of the 20th Century.

The Bulgarian torpedoboat Drazki (https://www.museumships.us/bulgaria/drazki)

The website supplies for each museum ship a photograph and background information. I was really surprised how many ships still exists nowadays and never knew of the existence of some ships like in Japan the Mikasa.

Still there are more museum ships existing that the 289 now described despite this already large number! I know form my own country the Netherlands that there are more ships but that’s not a comment but just a remark. I met the webmaster a little time ago when he visited the Mercuur lying at Vlissingen, Netherlands and we discussed in a friendly manner what we were both were doing in the maritime history world. He as webmaster of the website dealing with museum ships and I as board advisor for the Mercuur and one of the men behind warships research.

So everyone who loves ships in general or especially museum ships visit this magnificent website MUSEUM SHIPS and support the man behind with ever improving the website with new details or better new unknown museum ships!

American tug (ex-Hr.Ms. Wambrau 1956-1987, Sea Diver II 1987-2003) Josephine 2003-







Toledo, Ohio, USA 1 July 2013

Laid down for the Royal Netherlands Navy as the coastal tug Hr.Ms. Wambrau by the Navy yard at Willemsoord, Den Helder, Netherlands on 24 July 1956, launched on 27 August 1956, commissioned on 8 January 1957, transported to the Netherlands New Guinea with the Dutch cargo ship Riouw on 9 February 1957, returned on board of the Dutch cargo ship Schieloyd in October 1962 and sold in 1987. Ex-Y 8036 later with pennant A871. Displacement 179,4 tons and as dimensions 26,28 (maximum) x 6,60 (maximum) x 2,45 metres. Machinery consisted of  1-500hp Werkspoor engine allowing with the single screw a speed of 10,8 miles. In Dutch navy service numbered her crew 10 men. Fitted out with fire fighting and salvaging equipment while serving in the navy. After her sale in 1987 to J.Th. Mos, Enkhuizen, Netherlands was renamed Sea Diver II. Finally transported to the USA became she property of the Geo. Gradel Company, Toledo which company used her as the recreational tug Josephine in the Great Lakes Ares while it is not permitted to use her for commercial work due her building outside the USA. 

Dutch mine hunter Alkmaar (M850) 1979-2005 and Latvian mine hunter Rusins (M-08) 2005-

Off Den Helder, Netherlands 29 September 2010

Latvia-flagged, MMSI 275411000 and call sign YLNR. Of the Tripartite-design Dutch Alkmaar-class. Dimensions 51,6 x 8,96 x 2,45 metres and a loaded displacement of 544 tons of 1,000 kg. One Brons Werkspoor diesel engine delivering 1.900 hp allowing a speed of 15 knots. One screw. Her crew numbers 49 men. Armament consists of 1-2cm gun. of 15 knots. One screw. Her crew numbers 49 men. Armament consists of 1-2cm gun. Laid down at the shipyard Van der Giessen de Noord, Alblasserdam, Netherlands in 1878, laid down on 18 May 1982, commissioned on 28 May 1983, decommissioned on 15 May 2000 and wither sister ships Harlingen, Scheveningen, Dordrecht and Delfzijl sold to Latvia on 24 August 2005. 

Norwegian offshore supply ship Far Service 1995-

Inner harbour of Den Helder, Netherlands 29 September 2010

Gross tonnage 3.052 tons, summer deadweight 4.680 tons and as dimensions 85 x 18 x 4,4 metres. Isle of Man-flagged, homeport Douglas, IMO 9106431, MMSI 233626000 and call sign MSUQ9. Owned and managed by Farstad Marine AS (wholly owned subsidiary of Solstad Farstad ASA), Aalesund, Norway and to be delivered to her new owner on Tuesday 3 October 201. Built by Vard Soviknes, Sovik, Norway in 1995. UT 745. 

British offshore supply vessel North Challenger 1997-2012 (Highland Challenger 2013-

Inner harbour of Den Helder, Netherlands 29 September 2010

United Kingdom-flagged, homeport London, IMO 9169677, MMSI 235102659 and call sign 2HDE3. Renamed Highland Challenger 28 December 2013. Owned and managed by Gulf Offshore or GulfMark UK Ltd. , Aberdeen, United Kingdom. Part of the fleet of GulfMark. Built by Soviknes Verft AS/Vard Bevik, Brevik, Norway in 1997. Gross tonnage 1.968 tons, net tonnage 845 ton, summer deadweight 3.115 tons and as dimensions 67 (over all) x 16 (moulded) x (depth moulded) x 5,92 (maximum) metres. Horsepower 2x2.725bhp main power. 

British Royal Navy modernizing First World War V and W-classes destroyers according to the Dutch magazine Marineblad dated 1938 no. 6

An item referred to the magazine Marine Rundschau dated July 1938 reporting that the British Royal Navy intended to modernize the V and W-classes destroyers of 1917-1918. The armament was to consist of 3.4x2-10,2cm anti aircraft guns and further more to be fitted out with modern anti submarine warfare equipment. Their speed was just 30 knots.(1)

Note
1. Both similar classes were built under the War Emergency Programme and in their time of the best of their kind world wide. There were totally 67 built with another 40 cancelled. What was left of the aged destroyers in 1937 was kept by the navy and a large number was converted into escort vessels. 

British dry dock at Gibraltar was to be further enlarged according to the Dutch magazine Marineblad dated 1938 no. 6

An item referred to the Marine Rundschau dated August 1938 reporting that the dry dock at Gibraltar was to be enlarged making it possible to dock even the largest battleships. 

British Royal Navy building larger motor torpedo boats according to the Dutch magazine Marineblad dated 1938 no. 6

An item referred to the magazine Revista Maritima reporting that in April 1938 the British motor torpedo boat HMS 102 was commissioned which was larger and faster than the motor torpedo boats serving in the Mediterranean. The latter had a horsepower of 1.500 hp and a maximum speed pf 35 knots with the no. 102 fitted out with 3x1.000hp Isotta Franchini engines allowing a speed of 43,7 knots in full loaded condition/ Her armament consisted of 2-2cm guns and 2-54,3cm torpedo tubes.(1)

Note
1. Still existing as a museum ship. Designed by Peter Du Cane who was managing director of Vosper Ltd. Laid down in 1936 and launched in 1937. MMSI 235106809 and call sign MFRQ. 

Friday, 10 November 2017

British cruiser 3rd class HMS Psyche 1889-1890 and Ringarooma 1890-1906

HMS Pearl

Apollo-class

Part of the Pearl-class consisting of the Pearl, Pandora, Pallas, Pelorus, Persian, Philomel, Phoebe, Phoenix and Psyche, preceded by the Barham-class and succeeded by the Apollo-class. Designed by Sir William White (2 February 1845 Plymouth, Devon, England-27 February 1913 London, England). Launched by J.&G, Thomson, Glasgow, Scotland on 10 December 1889, renamed Ringaroona as part of the Auxiliary Squadron of the Australia Station on 2 April 1890, reserve between 1897-1900, departed from the Australia Station on 22 August 1904 and sold for 8.500 pound sterling to the Forth Shipbreaking Company to be broken up in May 1906.

Displacement 2,575 tons and as dimensions 78,0 (between perpendiculars)-84,7 (over all) x 12,5 x 4,72 metres or 256-278 x 41 x 15.6 feet. The machinery consisted of 2-3 cylinder triple expansion steam engines and 4 double-ended cylindrical boilers supplying via 2 screws 4.000 (natural draught)-7.500 ihp (forced draught) allowing a speed of 17 (natural draught)-19 (forced draught) knots. Their crew numbered 210-217 men. Armament consisted of 8x1-12cm/4.7” quick firing guns, 8x1-4,7cm/3pd quick firing guns, 4 machineguns and 2-35,6cm/14” torpedo tubes. The armour consisted of a 2,5/1”-5,1cm/2” thick deck, 5,15cm/2” thick gun shields and the conning tower protected by 7,6cm/3”. 

British cruiser 3rd class HMS Phoenix 1889-1890 and Tauranga 1890-1906

HMS Pearl

Apollo-class

Part of the Pearl-class consisting of the Pearl, Pandora, Pallas, Pelorus, Persian, Philomel, Phoebe, Phoenix and Psyche, preceded by the Barham-class and succeeded by the Apollo-class. Designed by Sir William White (2 February 1845 Plymouth, Devon, England-27 February 1913 London, England). Launched by J.&G. Thomson, Glasgow, Scotland on 28 October 1889, renamed Tauranga as part of the Auxiliary Squadron of the Australia Station on 2 April 1890,, reserve 1901-1903, added to the New Zealand division of the Australia Station, departed the Australia Station on 14 December 1904 and sold for 8.500 pound sterling to Thomas Ward to be broken up in July 1906.

Displacement 2,575 tons and as dimensions 78,0 (between perpendiculars)-84,7 (over all) x 12,5 x 4,72 metres or 256-278 x 41 x 15.6 feet. The machinery consisted of 2-3 cylinder triple expansion steam engines and 4 double-ended cylindrical boilers supplying via 2 screws 4.000 (natural draught)-7.500 ihp (forced draught) allowing a speed of 17 (natural draught)-19 (forced draught) knots. Their crew numbered 217 men. Armament consisted of 8x1-12cm/4.7” quick firing guns, 8x1-4,7cm/3pd quick firing guns, 4 machineguns and 2-35,6cm/14” torpedo tubes. The armour consisted of a 2,5/1”-5,1cm/2” thick deck, 5,15cm/2” thick gun shields and the conning tower protected by 7,6cm/3”.